[:zh]电磁仿真工具加速微波放大器的设计[:en]Electromagnetic simulation tools accelerate design of microwave amplifiers[:]
自动化基于仿真的设计周期已成为今天的行波管 (TWT) 微波放大器的主要设计师之一的成功的一个基本部分。
TMD 技术生产行波管大范围、 多雷达和导弹导引头系统、 电子对抗措施 (ECM) 和电子战 (EW) 系统的核心组件。通过使用内置科巴姆技术服务歌剧电磁设计软件的脚本编写工具，本公司已创建一个自定义的工具，自动生成新的行波管的三维 (3D) 模型，进行了数值模拟和分析结果，全部在 5 分钟左右的空间内。这种速度的设计提供工程团队进行迅速创建高度优化的解决方案，对于新的行波管应用程序，使公司迅速作出反应和有效地对这很大程度上项目驱动的业务的一种手段。
TMD 是一种最古老的公司在行波管市场上的根源可以追溯到 1940 年代早期，当作为微波管研究司的 EMI 电子，它开发了高功率速调管第一次机载雷达。今天，本公司保留在包括圆环圈和耦合腔类型的几个行波管设计部门，特别是在高功率器件的市场领导地位。该公司的能力，设计专门的高电压低噪声功率行波管的应用程序，所需的用品，提供综合的发射机子系统是本公司最近的增长背后的另一个主要因素。
设计过程的自动化至关重要，因为模拟是理解设计更改对行波管性能的影响的主要手段。虽然有标准的行波管产品市场，业务很大比例是特定于应用程序和 TMD 常常不得不平衡几个相互竞争的设计目标，以产生所需的特性。随着频率和放大的规格，往往有严重的重量、 体积、 功耗和热耗散目标为例，作为系统可能安装卫星或飞机上。设计是电源的兼容现有电压等级行波管的能力是电源的另一个常见的需求，因为这可以极大地减少项目成本和时间尺度。
基于歌剧的电磁设计工具提供强有力的手段，探索解决这些设计挑战 TMD。该工具有一个图书馆的泛型参数化模型的行波管管设计，含有独特的知识产权上的行波管，和所有的各个组成部分的设计工程师需要开始创建自定义的行波管是输入一些模型几何参数使用对话框 — — 只需几分钟。包会自动模拟和后处理结果提供自定义高级视图的最终的性能。
此过程通常需要不到五分钟，所以很容易为 TMD 修改设计参数和重复分析在任何空房的设计空间内找到最佳的解决方案。TMD 也已建成中特殊功能的自定义设计软件改进的优化过程，便于用户暂停模拟和更改参数对飞，或支架设计拓扑结构，并创建一个插值的数据文件，可以用来探索干预设计空间。由于高度自动化的设计优化，总的行波管设计过程的这个阶段往往可以在几天内完成。TMD 也产生了类似部分自动化的电子枪的设计和行波管的磁聚焦元素的脚本序列。
自动化的设计工具的最新应用之一一直在叫 PTX8400 的开创性的微波功率模块的发展。紧凑的变送器模块提供 1 千瓦输出由于新型环回路行波管提供很高的增益。这种组合的大小和性能设立无人机 (Uav) 和军用直升机平台等的空间和重量关键雷达应用程序的新标准。
TMD 用 Opera 软件套件从科巴姆已经超过 10 年了。该公司利用许多专家电磁设计解决由科巴姆包括模拟带电粒子束、 静态和时变磁场分析和建模的热效应。有限元分析设计软件的准确性证明了又一次对公司来说，通过比较得出从仿真模型的预言从真实世界成品实际测量的结果。
大卫 · 戴森，TMD 技术管司总工程师说:”歌剧为基础的工具，我们开发了极大地缩短设计周期，给了我们大量的时间和自由来为任何特定的应用程序，找到最佳的解决方案”。
行波管 （行波管） 是由生产电子束和耦合微波频率电磁信号放大的真空设备。同步通过 ‘慢波结构’ 采用几何，如螺旋、 圈栏或环循环至精确延时的微波信号通过迫使它来回闲逛。[:en]
Automated process allows travelling-wave-tubes to be designed and analyzed in minutes!
An automated simulation-based design cycle has become a fundamental part of the success of one of today’s leading designers of travelling wave tube (TWT) microwave amplifiers.
TMD Technologies produces a large range of TWTs, a core component of many radar and missile seeker systems, electronic counter measure (ECM) and electronic warfare (EW) systems. By using scripting tools built into Cobham Technical Services’ Opera electromagnetic design software, the company has created a custom tool that automatically builds a three-dimensional (3D) model of a new TWT, simulates it and analyses the results, all within the space of around five minutes. This speed of design provides the engineering team with a means of rapidly creating highly-optimized solutions for new TWT applications, allowing the company to respond quickly and effectively to this largely project-driven business.
TMD is one of the oldest companies in the TWT marketplace, with roots dating from the early 1940s, when as the microwave tube research division of EMI Electronics it developed high power klystrons for the first airborne radars. Today, the company retains a leadership position in several TWT design segments including ring-loop and coupled-cavity types, and particularly in the higher-power parts of the market. The company’s ability to design specialized high-voltage low-noise power supplies required for TWT applications, and to provide integrated transmitter subsystems is another major factor behind the company’s recent growth.
Automation of the design process is critical, as simulation is the main means of understanding the effects of design changes on TWT performance. Although there are markets for standard TWT products, a large proportion of the business is application-specific and TMD often has to balance several competing design goals in order to produce the required characteristics. Along with frequency and amplification specifications, there are often severe weight, size, power consumption and heat dissipation targets for example, as systems might be installed on satellites or aircraft. The ability to design a TWT that is compatible with the voltage levels of an existing power supply is another common demand, as this can substantially reduce project costs and timescales.
The Opera-based electromagnetic design tool provides TMD with a powerful means of exploring the solutions to these design challenges. The tool has a library of generic parameterized models of TWT tube designs, containing unique intellectual property on the design of component parts of TWTs, and all the engineer needs to start creating a custom TWT is to enter some of the model geometry parameters using dialog boxes – which takes only a few minutes. The package will then automatically simulate and post-process the results to provide custom high-level views of the resulting performance.
Assembling a travelling wave tube: automated simulation using Opera software is a fundamental part of the design of microwave amplifiers at TMD.
This process typically takes less than five minutes, so it is easy for TMD to modify the design parameters and repeat the analysis to locate the optimum solution within any chosen design space. TMD also has built in special features to the custom design software to improve the optimization process, such as making it easy for users to suspend simulation and change parameters on the fly, or to ‘bracket’ a design topology and then to create an interpolated data file that can be used to explore the intervening design space. Thanks to the highly automated design optimization, this phase of the total TWT design process can often be accomplished within a couple of days. TMD has also produced similar script sequences that partially-automate the design of the electron gun and magnetic focusing elements of a TWT.
One of the most recent applications for the automated design tool has been in the development of a groundbreaking microwave power module called PTX8400. The compact transmitter module provides 1 kW output thanks to a novel ring loop TWT offering very high gain. This combination of size and performance is setting a new standard for space- and weight-critical radar applications such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and military helicopter platforms.
TMD has been using the Opera software suite from Cobham for over 10 years. The company utilizes many of the specialist electromagnetic design solvers developed by Cobham including ones for simulating charged particle beams, for static and time-varying magnetic field analysis, and for modelling thermal effects. The accuracy of the finite element analysis design software has been proven time and again for the company, by comparing actual measured results from the finished real-world products with the predictions obtained from the simulation models.
One of TMD’s latest microwave power modules is setting a new standard for space- and weight-critical radar applications such as UAVs – thanks to a novel TWT designed with the aid of Opera.
“The Opera-based tools that we have developed substantially shorten design cycles, giving us a lot of time and freedom to find the best solution for any particular application,” says David Dyson, Chief Engineer of TMD Technologies’ Tubes Division.
Travelling wave tubes (TWTs) are vacuum devices that amplify by producing an electron beam and coupling it with a microwave frequency electromagnetic signal. Synchronization is achieved by means of a ‘slow wave structure’ which employs a geometry such as a helix, ring bar or ring loop to precisely delay the microwave signal by forcing it to meander back and forth.[:]